Literature Review

  • Electronic Portfolios

    Cambridge, D. (2010). E-portfolios for lifelong learning and assessment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Demski, J. (2012, March). E-portfolios: Are we there yet? Campus Technology, 25(7), 30–31. Retrieved from:

    Zubizarreta, J. (2009). The learning portfolio: Reflective practice for improving student learning (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. [see Chapter 3 in particular: Important Factors in Developing and Using Student Learning Portfolios]

  • Experiential Learning

    Baker, A. C., Jensen, P. J., & Kolb, D. A. (1997). In conversation: Transforming experience into learning. Simulation Gaming, 28(6), 6–12. doi: 10.1177/1046878197281002  

    Baker, A. C., Jensen, P. J., & Kolb, D. A. (2005, December). Conversation as experiential learning. Management Learning, 36(4), 411–427. doi: 10.1117/1350507605058130 

    Garner, I. (2000). Problems and inconsistencies with Kolb’s learning styles. Educational Psychology, 20(3), 341–348. doi: 10.1080/713663745

    Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(2), 193–212. Stable URL:

    Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). The Kolb learning style inventory-version 3.1. 2005 technical specifications. Boston, MA: Hay Resource Direct.

  • Foundational Theories

    Cognitive Structural

    Love, P. G., & Guthrie, V. L. (1999, Winter). Synthesis, assessment, and application. New Directions for Student Services, 1999(88), 77–93. doi: 10.1002/ss.8807

    Psychosocial Theories

    Chickering, A. W., & Ehrmann, S. C. (1996, October). Implementing the seven principles: Technology as lever. AAHE Bulletin. Retrieved from:

    Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987, March). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3–7.

    Chickering, A. W. (2010, Summer). Our purposes: Personal reflections on character development and social responsibility in higher education. Liberal Education, 96(3), 54–59. Retrieved from:

    Thieke, W. S. (1994, October). Developmental change in freshman students: Validating Chickering’s theory of student development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of: The Association for the Study of Higher Education. Tucson, AZ: ASHE.

  • Hope Theory

    Babyak, M. A., Snyder, C. R., & Yoshinobu, L. (1993). Psychometric properties of the hope scale: A confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 27, 154–169.

    Curry, L. A., Snyder, C. R., Cook, D. L., Ruby, D. C., & Rehm M. (1997). Role of hope in academic and sport achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(6), 1257–1267.

    Feldman, D. B., & Snyder, C. R. (2005). Hope and the meaningful life: Theoretical and empirical associations between goal-directed thinking and life-meaning. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(3), 401–421.

    Feldman, D. B., Rand, K. L., & Kahle-Wrobleski, K. (2009). Hope and goal attainment: Testing a basic prediction of hope theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(4), 479–497.

    Rand, K. L. (2009, February). Hope and optimism: Latent structures and influences on grade expectancy and academic performance. Journal of Personality, 77(1), 231–260. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00544.x

    Seirup, H., & Rose, S. (2011). Exploring the effects of hope on GPA and retention among college undergraduate students on academic probation. Education Research International, 2011 (article id 381429). doi: 10.1155/2011/381429

    Seligman, M. E. P., Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000, January). Positive psychology. An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.55.1.5

    Shorey, H. S., Snyder, C. R., Rand, K. L., Hockmeyer, J. R., Feldman, D. B. (2002). Somewhere over the rainbow: Hope theory weathers its first decade. Authors’ response. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 322–331. Retrieved from JSTOR Stable URL:

    Snyder, C. R. (2000). The past and possible futures of hope. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 11–28.

    Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory. Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249-275.

    Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, L. M., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., & Harney, P. (1991, April). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570–585. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.60.4.570

    Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., Borders, T. F., Babyak, M. A., & Higgins, R. L. (1996). Development and validation of the state hope scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(2), 321–335.

    Snyder, C. R., Shorey, Cheavens, J., Pulvers, K. M., Adams III, V. H., & Wiklund, C. (2002). Hope and academic success in college. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 820–826. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.94.4.820

    Snyder, C. R., Shorey, H. S., & Rand, K. L. (2008). Using hope theory to teach and mentor academically at-risk students. In W. Buskist & S. F. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of the Teaching of Psychology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. doi: 10.1002/9780470754924.ch29

  • Identity

    Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2003, March/April). Identity and learning: Student affairs’ role in transforming higher education. Journal of College Student Development, 44(2), 231–247. doi: 10.1353/csd.2003.0020

    Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Meeus, W. (2008). Capturing the dynamics of identity formation in various ethnic groups: Development and validation of a three-dimensional model. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 207–222. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.09.002.

    Meeus, W. (2011). The study of adolescent identity formation 2000–2010: A review of longitudinal research. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 75–94. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00716.x

    Pizzolato, J. E. (2006). Achieving college student possible selves: Navigating the space between commitment and achievement of long-term identity goals. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(1), 57–69. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.12.1.57

    Pizzolato, J. E. (2007, March). Impossible selves: Investigating students’ persistence decisions when their career-possible selves border on impossible. Journal of Career Development, 33(3), 201–223. doi: 10.1177/089~4M5306296644

    Pizzolato, J. E. (2008, March/April). Advisor, teacher, partner: Using the learning partnerships model to reshape academic advising. About Campus, 13(1), 18–25. doi: 10.1002/abc.243

    Pizzolato, J. E., Chaudhari, P., Murrell, E. D., & Podobnik, S. (2008, July/August). Ethic identity, epistemological development, and academic achievement in underrepresented students. Journal of College Student Development, 49(4), 301–318. doi: 10.1353/csd.0.0020

    Torres, V., Jones, S. R., & Renn, K. A. (2009, November/December). Identity development theories in student affairs: Origins, current status, and new approaches. Journal of College Student Development, 50(6), 577–596. doi: 10.1353/csd.0.0102

  • Integrative Learning

    Arnold, T. (2010). Integrative learning and the individualized prior learning assessment narrative. The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 58(1), 47–49. doi: 10.1080/07377360903531471. 

    Booth, A., McLean, M., & Walker, M. (2009). Self, others, and society: A case study of university integrative learning. Studies in Higher Education, 34(8), 929–939. doi:10.1080/03075070902773818.

    Cambridge, D. (2008). Layering networked and symphonic selves: A critical role for e-Portfolios in employability through integrative learning. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 25(4), 244–262. doi: 10.1108/10650740810900685

    Huber, M. T., Hutchings, P., & Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2004). Integrative learning: Mapping the terrain. The academy in transition. Association of American Colleges and Universities.

    Huber, M., Hutchings, P., Gale, R., Miller, R., & Breen, M. (2007). Leading initiatives for integrative learning. Liberal Education, 93(2), 46–51.

    Mentkowski, M., & Sharkey, S. (2011, Spring). How we know it when we see it: Conceptualizing and assessing integrative and applied learning-in-use. New Directions for Institutional Research, (149), 93–107.

    Newell, W. H. (2010). Educating for a complex world: Integrative learning and interdisciplinary studies. Liberal Education, 96(4), 6–11. 

    Peet, M., Lonn, S., Gurin, P, Page Boyer, K., Matney, M., Marra, R., Himbeault Taylor, S., & Daley, A. (2001). Fostering integrative knowledge through ePortfolios. International Journal of ePortfolio, 1(1), 11–31. Retrieved from:

  • Lifelong and Lifewide Learning

    Barnett, R. (2010, April). Life-wide education: A new and transformative concept for higher education? In N. Jackson & R. Law (Eds.), e-Proceedings On-line Enabling a More Complete Education Conference. Guilford, GBR: University of Surrey. Retrieved from:

    Barrett, H. C., & Garrett, N. (2009). Online personal learning environments: Structuring online portfolios for lifelong and life-wide learning. On the Horizon, 17(2), 142–152. doi: 10.1108/10748120910965511

    Bass, R. (2012, March/April). Disrupting ourselves. The problem of learning in higher education. EDUCAUSE Review, 47(2), 23-33. Retrieved from:

    Edwards, R., & Usher, R. (2001, August). Lifelong learning: A postmodern condition of education? Adult Education Quarterly, 51(4), 273–287.

    Edwards, R., Ranson, S., & Strain, M. (2002, November-December). Reflexivity: Towards a theory of lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(6), 525–536. doi: 10.1080/0260137022000016749

    Glastra, F. J., Hake, B. J., & Schedler, P. E. (2004, August). Lifelong learning as transitional learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 54(4), 291–307. doi: 10.1177/0741713604266143

    Schuetze, H. G., & Casey, C. (2006, September). Models and meanings of lifelong learning: Progress and barriers on the road to a learning society. Compare, 36(3), 279–287. doi: 10.1080/030579206000872365

  • Reflection

    Ash, S. l., & Clayton, P. (2009, Fall). Generating, deepening, and documenting learning: The power of critical reflection in applied learning. Journal of Applied Learning, 1, 25–48. 

    Baxter-Magolda, M. B. (2004). Evolution of a constructivist conceptualization of epistemological reflection. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 3142. 

    Brockbank, A., & McGill, I. (2007, February). Facilitating reflective learning in higher education (2nd ed.). Buckingham, GBR: Open University Press.

    Clegg, S. & Bradley, S. (2006, June). The implementation of progress files in higher education: Reflection as national policy. Higher Education, 51(4), 465486. Stable URL:

    Eynon, B. (2009, Fall). Introduction. In In Transit: The LaGuardia Journal on Teaching and Learning, 4, pp.v. Long Island City, NY: Center for Teaching and Learning LaGuardia Community College, City University of New York.

    Fisher, K. (2003, November). Demystifying critical reflection: Defining criteria for assessment. Higher Education Research and Development, 22(3), 313325. doi: 10.1080/0729436032000145167

    Gelter, H. (2003, October). Why is reflective thinking uncommon? Reflective Practice, 4(3), 337344. doi: 10.1080/1462394032000112237    

    Jenkins, M., & Lonsdale, J. (2007). Evaluating the effectiveness of digital storytelling for student reflection. Proceedings ascilite Singapore 2007.

    Kember, D., Jones, A., Loke, A., McKay, J., Sinclair, K., Tse, H., Webb, C., Wong, F., Wong, M., & Yeung, E. (1999, January/February). Determining the level of reflective thinking from students’ written journals using a coding scheme based on the work of Mezirow. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 18(1), 1830.

    Kember, D., & Leung, D. Y. P with Jones, A., Loke, A., Sinclair, K., McKay, J., Tse, H., Webb, C., Wong, F., Wong, M., & Yeung, E. (2000). Development of a Questionnaire to measure the level of reflective thinking. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 25(4), 381395.   

    King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1993, Winter). The development of reflective thinking in the college years: The mixed results. New Directions for Higher Education, 1993(84), 2542. Retrieved from:

    King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. (2004). Reflective judgment: Theory and research on the development of epistemic assumptions through adulthood. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 518.

    Kitchener, K. S., Lynch, C. L., Fischer, K. W., & Wood, P. K. (1993). Developmental range of reflective judgment: The effect of contextual support and practice on developmental stage. Developmental Psychology, 29(5), 893906.

    Leberman, S. I., & Martin, A. J. (2004). Enhancing transfer of learning through post-course reflection. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 4(2), 173–184. Retrieved from:

    Lim, L-A. Y. L. (2011). A comparison of students’ reflective thinking across different years in a problem-based learning environment. Instructional Science, 39, 171–188. doi: 10.1007/s11251-009-9123-8

    Love, P. G., & Guthrie, V. L. (1999). King and Kitchener’s reflective judgment model. New Directions for Student Services, 88, 41–51.

    Mezirow, J. (1998, Spring). On critical reflection. Adult Education Quarterly, 48(3), 185–199.

    McAlpine, L., Weston, C., Beauchamp, J., Wiseman, C., & Beauchamp, C. (1999, March). Building a metacognitive model of reflection. Higher Education, 37(2), 105–131. Stable URL:

    Moon, J. A. (1999). Reflection in learning and professional development. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

    Moon, J. A. (2004). A handbook of reflective and experiential learning: Theory and practice. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

    Moon, J. A. (2004). Reflection and employability. Learning and Employability Series. York: LTSN Generic Center. Retrieved from:

    Phan, H. P. (2008). Predicting change in epistemological beliefs, reflective thinking and learning styles: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 75–93. doi: 10.1348/000709907X204354

    Phan, H. P. (2009). Exploring students’ reflective thinking practice, deep processing strategies, effort, and achievement goal orientations. Educational Psychology, 29(3), 297–313. doi: 10.1080/01443410902877988

    Pitts, W., & Ruggirello, R. (2012). Using the e-portfolio to document and evaluate growth in reflective practice: The development and application of a conceptual framework. International Journal of ePortfolio, 2(1), 49–74. Retrieved from:

    Rodgers, C. (2002, June). Defining reflection: Another look at John Dewey and reflective thinking. Teachers College Record, 104(4), 842–866.

    van Gelder, T. (2005, Winter). Teaching critical thinking: Some lessons from cognitive science. College Teaching, 53(1). Stable URL:

    van Woerkom, M. (2010). Critical reflection as a rationalistic ideal. Adult Education Quarterly, 60(4), 339–356. doi: IO.I 177/0741713609358446

    Whipp, J. (2003, September). Scaffolding critical reflection in online discussions: Helping prospective teachers think deeply about field experiences in urban schools. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(4). doi: 10.1177/0022487103255010

    Xie, Y., & Sharma, P. (2011). Exploring evidence of reflective thinking in student artifacts of blogging-mapping tool: a design-based research approach. Instructional Science, 39, 695–719. doi 10.1007/s11251-010-9149-y

  • Self-Authorship

    Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2002, January/February). Helping students make their way to adulthood. Good company for the journey. About Campus, 6(6), 2–9.

    Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2008, July/August). Three elements of self-authorship. Journal of College Student Development, 49(4), 269–284. doi: 10.1353/csd.0.0016 

    Hodge, D. C., Baxter Magolda, M. B., & Haynes, C. A. (2009, Fall). Engaged learning. Enabling self-authorship and effective practice. Liberal Education, 94(4), 16–23. Retrieved from EBSCOhost:

    Pizzolato, J. E. (2003, November/December). Developing self-authorship: Exploring the experiences of high-risk college students. Journal of College Student Development, 44(6), 797–812. doi: 10.1353/csd.2003.0074

    Pizzolato, J. E. (2004, July/August). Coping with conflict: Self-authorship, coping, and adaptation to college in first-year, high-risk students. Journal of College Student Development, 45(2), 425–442. doi: 10.1353/csd.2004.0050

    Pizzolato, J. E. (2005 November/December). Creating crossroads for self-authorship. Investigating the provocative moment. Journal of College Student Development, 46(6), 624–641. doi: 10.1353/csd.2005.0064

    Pizzolato, J. E. (2006, Spring). Complex partnerships: Self-authorship and provocative academic advising practices. NACADA Journal, 26(1), 32–45.

    Wawrzynski, M. R., & Pizzolato, J. E. (2006, November/December). Predicting needs: A longitudinal investigation of the relation between student characteristics, academic paths, and self-authorship. Journal of College Student Development, 47(6), 677–692. doi: 10.1353/csd.2006.0071

  • Student Development and Meaning Making

    Arnett, J. J. (2000, May). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.55.5.469 

    Arnett, J. J., & Tanner, J. L. (Eds.). (2006). Emerging adulthood: Coming of age in the 21st century. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Bateson, M. C. (2006). Composing a life story. In M. R. Schwehn & D. C. Bass (Eds.), Leading lives that matter. What we should and who we should be (pp. 459–467). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans.

    Gaitán, A. (2012). Understanding students’ experiences of e-PDP and the factors that shape their attitudes. International Journal of ePortfolio, 2(1), 29–38.

    King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1996, March/April). A developmental perspective on learning. Journal of College Student Development, 37(2), 163–173. Permalink:

    King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2005, November/December). A developmental model of intercultural maturity. Journal of College Student Development, 46(6), 571–592. doi: 10.1353/csd.2005.0060

    Nash, R. J., Murray, M. C., & Parks, S. D. (2010). Helping college students find purpose: The campus guide to meaning-making. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

    Pizzolato, J. E. (2008). Meaning-making inside and outside the academic arena: Investigating the contextuality of epistemological development in college students. The Journal of General Education, 56(3–4), 228–251.

    Pizzolato, J. E., & Ozaki, C. C. (2007, March/April). Moving toward self-authorship: Investigating outcomes of learning partnerships. Journal of College Student Development, 48(2), 196–214. 

    Pizzolato, J. E., Hicklen, S. T., Brown, E. L., & Chaudhari, P. (2009, September/October). Student development, student learning: Examining the relation between epistemologic development and learning. Journal of College Student Development, 50(5), 475–490. doi: 10.1353/csd.0.0093

  • Transformative Learning

    Mezirow, J. (1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from:

    Mezirow, J. (1997, Summer). Transformative learning: Theory to practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 5–12.